Development of empathy in preschool children
Introduction. Updating new values in education, a fundamental change in the socio-economic and cultural life in society has spawned a steady request for new type of man. According to the State standard of education of the Russian Federation and the requirements of the time one of the leading priorities of education is to create conditions for the emotional-moral education of children. This is significant because the development of personality, capable of empathy, compassion, perception of emotional expressions of other people provides a successful adaptation in the modern socio-cultural space. That is why early childhood is the period of a special socio-emotional sensitivity, a time of discovery to the world and peace for yourself. The most important challenge that decide children is communication with other peers and adults, nature and yourself, mastering the essence of human relations. And this is very relevant now as ever. I decided to work on the theme “Development of empathy in preschool children in theatrical activity.” The emergence of forms of communication in children necessary for the development of spiritual culture of society is a complex process education of moral qualities associated with the appearance of responsiveness, humanity, humanity, prerequisites, which are the emergence of moral emotions and feelings. The result of the development of moral sentiments and emotions depends not only on the knowledge of regularities of development of the child, but also the ability to organize the activities of children, to give her the right direction and to use effective techniques and methods of influence on the children who will benefit development of the capacity for empathy. The development of empathy contributes to the moral feelings, the ability to put yourself in the place of another person (or thing), the ability to empathize. Empathy also includes the ability to determine the emotional state of another person based on the facial reactions, actions, gestures, etc.
How in the preschool years contribute to the development of such feelings as empathy, which in an adult might not be? My actions are intended to help children to learn how to live among other people, to be emotionally responsive, capable of empathy, a willingness to be humane attitude towards the world. For me, technology has been developed “the Development of empathy in preschool children in theatrical activity.”
In this technology, I undertook the following tasks:
own ability, qualities of character, feelings, needs,
the limits of their capabilities, and sexual identity;
– to develop children’s ability to perceive the emotions of another person,
to sympathize and help him;
– create the ability to respond constructively to frustration and
– to develop the ability to understand and follow the rules of the joint
life, sometimes at the expense of the own interests, to cooperate with
– systematic inclusion of theatrical games in all activities of the pedagogical process.
In the group I social-emotional education is carried out through theatrical activities. In working with children I use drama games that contribute to the development of mental processes and various personal qualities of independence, initiative, emotional responsiveness, imagination. In theatrical games, children develop the ability to sense the emotional state of others, the ability to take a position experiencing and performing certain actions. To lose various relationships with other people. Work on the development of empathy in theatrical activities begin with, that the child participated in a theatrical play, taking on a role, a way different game characters that gives a sense of emotional unity and communion with him and allows you to implement, to Express their own inherent children’s feelings, thereby showing and enriching their emotional and sensual experience. In the future, the child begins to identify with their favorite characters. The ability of identification and allows dramatized through images of the game to influence children, shaping the experience of empathic behavior. Also there is assimilation of different images of actions and behavior that teaches children to do the moral choice. Work with children spend in groups of 8 – 10 people. In the play area organized a workshop “moods”. It is a dramatized area of activity in which there is a screen, curtain, fannelegraph, different types of theaters (desktop, shadow, bi-BA-Bo, finger, theatre spoons, etc.), there is also a wardrobe in which you place costumes. Masks, attributes, sets to work on creating the image and various game songs. All this helps to develop and maintain children’s interest and opens up opportunities to create your own artistic image of children, the development of different playing positions, development of creative abilities.
In the course of work activity in children include:
– breathing exercises, acting sedative effect on the nervous system- – reading children’s nursery rhymes, poems with change movements and facial expressions that contribute to the development of arbitrariness and the ability to Express emotions;
– conversations, stories for the formation of General ideas about the theatre and the development of positive emotional attitude to theatrical activities;
– etudes and exercises developing the ability to emancipation to stay in public;
– etudes and exercises on the recognition of emotions;
– collective drama games and dramatization;
– exercises on the formation of the expressiveness of performance;
– mini skits;
– play ethical situations;
– interviews with the use of problem situations;
games – fantasy and games-improvisation;
– drama games – experimentation;
Conclusion. This work contributes to the development of empathy in preschool age and teaches children not to be indifferent to others. During this period laid the quality that makes us human, individual traits are manifested. Therefore, empathy is a prerequisite for the formation of the emotional state of children. And this is primarily resistance to stress, harmony of intellectual, volitional spheres of activity. A child who has learned to sympathize with and help people, to show patience and empathy, successfully adapt in the team of pupils and has all the prerequisites to successful implementation.