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Article to Learn or play – development of the preschool child


As a result, the system of preschool education is increasingly turning into the lowest level of schooling. Despite the progressive and humanistic concept of scientists, despite the policy of the preschool division of the Ministry of education and his call to save the child, fear of the future and takes its “readiness for school” becomes the main objective. This trend is not only unnecessary – neither pedagogical nor from a psychological point of view, but also very dangerous, carrying unpredictable social consequences.

The fact is that because of their psychological characteristics of children of preschool age (under 7 years) is not able to deliberate and purposeful learning activities. Knowledge and skills acquired in the context of your practice and are not included in the context of life children are not for preschoolers personal sense, and therefore poorly absorbed and do not carry the developmental effect. Even having learned any of the terms and language children do not understand them and cannot use. The learned knowledge, divorced from the real lives of children, remain meaningless speech cliches. Despite the best efforts of educators and mental exhaustion of preschool children, their school readiness remains highly questionable. Children can’t learn, just because adults want. And not because they are lazy and disobedient, but because they are children. And the trouble is not that they have nothing to gain from such premature learning, and that they lose vital opportunities that will open up a preschool childhood.

Preschool age is a unique and critical period of child development when there is the basis of personality, is the will and arbitrary behavior, actively developing imagination, creativity, community initiative. However, all of these important qualities are not formed in the lessons and in leading and main activities preschooler is in the game.

The most significant change, which is noted by psychologists, and the most experienced pre-school teachers, is that children in kindergartens have become smaller and worse to play, especially decreased (and the number and duration) role-playing game. Preschoolers almost don’t know traditional children’s games and can’t play. The main reason is usually called a lack of time for the game. However, even in the time allotted, according to the observations of teachers, children are meaningful and play safely – they were messing around, fighting and pushing each other – so teachers have to fill their free time the children quiet activities or to resort to disciplinary actions. Thus they note that children cannot and do not want to play. It is really so. The game does not happen by itself, and is transmitted from one generation of children to another – from the older to the younger. Currently, this Association with children’s generations is interrupted and uneven-aged children community – in the family, in the courtyard, the apartment is found only as an exception). Children grow up among adults, and adults have no time to play, but they don’t know how to do that and not consider it important. If they’re children, they teach them. As a result, the game goes from the lives of preschoolers, and with it out and the very childhood.

Minimize play in the preschool years is very sad affects overall mental and personality development of children. As we know, in the game the most intensively developed thinking . emotions, communication, imagination, consciousness of the child. The advantage of playing in front of any other children’s activity lies in the fact that it is the child himself, voluntarily subject to certain rules (open or defined role in the game), what exactly are the rules delivers maximum pleasure. This makes the child’s behavior is meaningful and conscious, turns him from a field in volitional. So the game, while remaining as free and attractive for the child activity is a school of arbitrary conduct . teaches him to achieve the goal (even while gaming), to overcome their impulsive desires. The game brings order to the child’s head, helps him to understand himself and his relationship to the world. This is practically the only area where children can exercise initiative and creativity. And at the same time, it is in the game, children learn to monitor and evaluate themselves, to understand what they are doing, and (probably most importantly) be willing to act properly. Thus, arbitrariness is not only actions by the rules, this awareness, independence, responsibility, self-control, inner freedom. Having lost the game, children do not acquire this. As a result, their behavior is situational, spontaneous, dependent on the adults around him. Observations show that modern children do not know how to organize their activities, to give it purpose: they roam, pushing, sorting out toys, etc. most of them Have no imagination, no creative initiative and independent thinking. And since the preschool age is the best period for the formation of these essential qualities, it is difficult to maintain the illusion that all of these abilities will arise by themselves then, at a more Mature age.

Poverty games adversely affects the communicative development of children. Communication preschoolers occurs mainly in cooperative play. It is a common game – its rules, its plot, roles, etc. – is the main content of children’s communication. Playing and performing various game roles, they learn to see events from different perspectives, to take into account the actions and interests of others, to comply with the norms and rules of communication. Preschoolers who can’t play, can’t meaningfully communicate, they are not able to work together, not interested in the needs and problems of their peers. There are growing manifestations of aggressiveness, alienation, hostility to peers. Kids can simply so, for no particular reason it hurts to hit fellow head against the wall, pull hair, take away the toy, hurt, not feeling particular emotions. It is easy to imagine what the consequences (including social) can have a similar childish “pranks”.

Meanwhile, parents are increasingly the main indicator of efficiency of work of the kindergarten and welfare of the child is considered to be the degree of school readiness, which is expressed in the ability to count, read, write and execute the instructions of an adult. This “readiness” does not only contribute, but also prevents normal schooling: sated educational practice in kindergarten, children often don’t want to school, or lose interest in their studies already in Junior high. The benefits of early learning have an impact only in the first 2-3 months of school life – such “ready” children don’t need to learn to read and count. But as soon as you need to show independence, curiosity, ability to decide and to think these kids fold and wait for instructions of an adult. Needless to say that such passivity, lack of interest and self-reliance, inner emptiness will have very sad results not only in school.

Childhood is not only the most happy and carefree time of life. It is also the most intense period of identity formation. What has not developed in childhood, it is impossible to “cram” into an adult. You have to understand that depriving a young child of the game and forcing him to learn, we take away his childhood, and then steal his whole world of children’s experiences, aspirations, relationships and deprive it of the opportunity to become a complete person.

Smirnova E. O., Professor Ph. D.,head.laboratory mental development of preschool children Psychological Institute RAO

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