Basic contradictions as a source of personality development of the adolescent
Age from 11 to 15 years are not without reason called the critical. During this period in the formation of personality there are significant changes that sometimes lead to a radical change of behavior, previous interests, relations. If the changes are fast and intense, then the development becomes abrupt and impetuous nature. These changes are accompanied by large subjective difficulties in the child. They invoke strong emotions that he can’t explain. We call them frustrations (details will be discussed below).
The causes of the crisis and contradictions of the teenager became a subject of studying developmental psychology. We will review the main points.
Philosophers define conflict as the interaction of opposite, mutually exclusive sides of the object, which are located both in unity and interpenetration. They can be core and non-core, inner and outer, physical and non-physical (Soviet encyclopedic dictionary). By analyzing the characteristics of the body of a teenager, we drew attention to the discrepancy between one’s physiological sphere to the other: the skeletal system Matures – behind the muscle, changing the appearance and the teenager becomes similar to adult, but it acts more like a child, etc.
In the psychological literature contradictions teenager considered age crises. Leo Tolstoy called them “deserts adolescence”, the essence of which – in a huge energy bubbling to the surface in order to Express themselves. But much is unclear in the adult world. As they learn, fit into it, even if there is no necessary life skills?
There are several types of contradictions in shaping the personality of a teenager. Here are key.
The contradiction between the requirements of his new job, and already known methods of its implementation. For example, learning activities in middle school requires abstract thinking, analysis through the inclusion of some phenomenon in a new system of relations (both were outstanding Russian psychologist S. L. Rubinstein, “analysis through synthesis”) that allows the student to think abstractly, formulate laws, access to new principles or to build new ways of solving the problem. But the student used to solve specific tasks, already known type. He takes these steps in a new environment and is not getting the correct answer. Then the student is trying to fit the solution to the correct answer, which is given at the end of the tutorial, i.e. performs the operation of “random”.
The contradiction between the type of education and opportunities of a teenager (M. I. Makhmutov). For example, passive–illustrative of the type of education that many scientists and educators called “mental chewing gum”, becomes a hindrance to intellectual development of the student. He suggests not using the life experience of a teenager and his relationship to assimilate knowledge, and learning; the development of thinking and memory usage. Hence the tendency to repetition is already known, no discussion. Some scholars, such as V. A. farm, called the arisen contradiction contradiction between freedom and predestination in training. If the training focuses on external ordering, parent or social, from the teacher is required to give the students certain training activities. If the training is focused on the identification and realization of the inner self of a disciple, we must create an environment that will develop his / her personal potential.
The contradiction between the characteristics of primary school and secondary. In initial training is conducted by one teacher, the children are getting used to his demands, manner of behavior. In the mid – multidisciplinary training. Different classes are taught by different teachers, opinions about which one student can vary greatly. Therefore, conflicts may arise with teachers.
The contradiction between the mass nature of learning and individual learning routes. Actually, this contradiction is manifested in the fact that every student should learn the state curriculum. Because the standard of education is essential for all, teachers have generally the same requirements to all, not taking into account the aptitudes and abilities of a teenager to a particular subject area. But from inclination formed abilities, but about individual educational programs in public schools does not have to dream. Individual educational routes allows not only to predict future success of a student, but also to develop them based on the design of learning activities focused on a specific student. For example, one reads avidly, very well expresses his thoughts freely operates literary sources, the other clock solves chess problems, and the third with pleasure versed with computer programs. Naturally, a large spread of interests of these children will lead to different results in any one activity.
The contradiction between the old and the new. It is that parents and educators understand the new quality of adolescent’s personality and distinguish them from existing. In particular, we should mention a new mental property of teenager’s personality – a sense of maturity at which a teenager can change your Outlook on life and move from children’s behaviours, gaming activities to the need to prove themselves in their professional activities.
The conflict between the needs and opportunities of their satisfaction. Needs are considered as man’s need of objects of material and spiritual culture. To realize the needs, desired activity in the achievement of that can satisfy them. For example, the teenager wants to have a music centre, but the material was insufficient. Not being able to make money, he asks their parents. If they refuse him, he is looking for ways to get money. And if moral principles are not all right, perhaps, the money to buy will be ill-gotten. Only will the teenager pleasure from this? Begins to haunt, there is fear of exposure, the teenager suffers.
A large number of teenagers there are contradictions between the spiritual and material needs. Children do not like to wait, they want to have a whole lot at once. But because the needs nanosysteme, their satisfaction is often not felt as a great joy. There is a new need of a larger scale. In the end, there is a situation about which Russian teacher and doctor A. F. Lesgaft wrote: “First, the child will require a piece of candy, then candy with rum, then a rum and candy, and eventually – one rum”.
The need to prove themselves among their peers, the desire to seem interesting and attractive, especially the opposite sex, and feelings about appearance. The discrepancy growth of muscle mass “creates” the appearance, which the teenager has a dream. Hence the opinion about his physical deformity, he asks for money for plastic surgery of the nose, ears, lengthening (shortening) of the legs, etc. and sometimes says the mother: “Why do you bore me so ugly?” This contradiction leaves the child to engage in “public” activities. The desire to hide from people leads some adolescents to neuroticism, loneliness, a kind types of protection.
The desire to realize themselves and the inability to do this is another contradiction of a teenager. The teenager suffers from a lack of important people and confessional modes of communication (A. V. Mudrik). But the latter is sometimes impossible to implement, because the adults don’t understand his intentions to talk, to speculate. Therefore, parents say, “Stop fooling around, you’re not a little” or “What are you talking nonsense? Don’t interrupt and don’t wander underfoot, go take care of business”.
Thus, the development of the teenager’s body occurs simultaneously with the formation of his personality. The resolution of contradictions, leading the teenager to a higher level.