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Child psychology

 

Children the methodology in psychology – the branch of psychology that studies the conditions and driving forces of development of the psyche at the stage of childhood, patterns of functioning and changes in cognitive, volitional and emotional processes, particularly the formation of the child as a person. Child psychology is also exploring the characteristics of different types of children’s activities (games, exercises, labor), determining the age and individual characteristics of children. Child psychology is closely related to educational psychology, pedagogy, biology, physiology, medicine, family psychotherapy. In child psychology used methods of quantitative estimates, various apparatus, information model of experiential learning in kindergartens, etc. child psychology developing standardized methods of psychological diagnostics, allowing to establish the level of development of mental processes and properties, characteristic for each age stage.

Children psychology the methodology – (eng. child psychology — the branch of psychology that studies the regularities of mental development of the child. Has some General problems with educational psychology , closely connected with pedagogy, as well as with age morphology and physiology, especially the physiology of higher nervous activity .

Research in the field of D. p. are important for pedagogical practice, since knowledge of the conditions and regularities of mental development of the child is necessary for the effective management of this process in accordance with the purposes of training and education.

The subject of study D. p. are the conditions and driving causes ontogenesis of the human psyche and the development of individual mental processes (cognitive, volitional, emotional), the formation of different types of activity ( game , work, learning ; see the Activities of children ), qualities of his personality, as well as age and individual characteristics of children.

D. p. uses research methods developed in General psychology, but the nature of their use varies depending on the specific objectives of the D. p. and the age of the subjects.

In the study of age features of the child’s personality are so-called transverse and longitudinal study. In the 1st case, the same mental process is investigated simultaneously in children of different age groups. The 2nd is a long, multi-year study of the psychological characteristics of the same children. This allows, in particular, to trace the General course of development of their psyche. (Cm. Longitudinal study Strategy the study of mental development .)

D. p. is developing standardized methods of psychological diagnostics , allowing to establish the level of development of mental processes and properties, characteristic for each age stage.

The design of the D. p. as an independent field of knowledge began in the mid-nineteenth century influenced by the demands of teaching practice, in connection with the development of objective methods of psychological research. At the end of XIX — beg. XX century. in D. p. the transition from the accumulation of empirical material in the form of diary entries to create a synthesis of the work of mental development of a child ( In . Stern , K. Koffka To . Buhler And . Binet , A. Gesell, etc.). In the field D. p. conducted research A. Vallon, R. Sasso and others (France), M. Vernon, O’connor and others (England). Hall , J. Bruner, G. Stevenson, and others (USA). Widely known research Well . Piaget and his collaborators (Switzerland).

In Russia the foundations of D. p. were laid in the works . M . Sechenov , To . D . Ushinsky . A significant contribution to its development was made of the work of P. F. Kapterev, I. A. Sikorski, A. P. Nechaev, A. F. Lazurski, In . M . Spondylitis, etc. the most Important ideas and the provisions of the D. p. were formulated in the works of P . P . Blonsky , L . With . Vygotsky , With . L . Rubinstein , Etc . N. Uznadze , And . N. Leontiev , And . P . Luria, etc. Systematic research on the psychology of young children conducted N. M. Selivanov, N. L. Figurin, M. P. Denisova, N. M. Acarina, M . And . Lisin , on the psychology of the preschool child . In . Zaporozhets , Etc . B . Elkonin , A. A., Lublin, on the psychology of students . And . Smirnov , G. S. Kostyuk, P . And . Zinchenko , N. And . Menchinskaya , L . And . Bozovic , P . I . Halperin and others.

D. p. critical in the mental development of the child gives him adopt the historic patterns of human activity . In this process, children acquire the relevant knowledge and skills : they formed the fundamental abilities and personality. Maturation natural anatomopathological characteristics of the organism and researcher of the child — the premise of his mental development. However, this maturing does not define neither the content nor the structure forming the child specifically human characteristics and abilities (eg. speech music and hearing , logical thinking, etc.).

The assimilation of the children of public experience occurs in the form of active implementation of the various activities. In the acquirement of every child activity observed natural transition from the absorption of external, tangible action items to implement internal mental actions that allow to navigate in the relevant field of reality. Approximate integral components of activity are the basis of adequate ideas and concepts of the child on the objects of the surrounding reality. As the mental development of a child becomes an entity that can act on the basis of consciously set goals (see Will ).

The mental development of the child — process, including moments of “self-movement”, of the origin and overcoming of contradictions, logical transition from one quality level to other Age periods (stages), though connected with the maturation of an organism, determined by the place occupied by a child in the system of human relations ( social situation of development . according to Vygotsky), characteristic types of activity. Highlighting the quality and originality of the various stages of development and determination of their age limits is a task of the age periodization of mental development . Psychological characteristics of stages of development change in the cultural-historical development (society). Central to the characteristics of the stages of child development are not the quantity of their knowledge and skills or characteristics of individual mental processes (which can be changed in a wide range), and specific to each age internal position of the child, his attitude to his surroundings, as well as the originality of the ways in which the child discovers, learns a new side of the world.

Teaching experience and special studies allowed to identify in the child’s development footprint. age periods: infancy (birth to 1 year), infancy (1-3 years), preschool the age (3-6/7 years), primary school age (6/7-10 years), adolescence (11/12-15 years), early adolescence (15-17/18 years).