Methodology – Interaction parent – child
The technique is intended for diagnostics of interaction between parents and children. The questionnaire allows us to determine not only the evaluation of one party — the parents, but also the vision of interaction with the other side — from the position of children.
Description of the method
Questionnaire “Interaction parent – child” is a “mirror” and contains two parallel forms: for parents and for children. In addition, there are two versions of the questionnaire:
Option for Teens and their parents;
Option for parents of preschool children and Junior pupils.
Thus, the questionnaire has three forms: one baby and two adults, 60 questions each.
The text of the questionnaire includes 10 scales – criteria to assess the interaction of parents with children. For each scale version of the questionnaire for adolescents have equal number of questions, except for two, which allocates the majority of researchers, and which can be considered basic in the parent-child relationship. This is the scale “autonomy-control” and “rejection-acceptance”, was composed of 10 statements, and in the rest of the scale — 5 claims.
An adultversion of the questionnaire for parents of teenagers also includes 60 questions and has a similar child variant structure.
When filling the questionnaire, parents and children are encouraged to assess the degree of agreement with each statement on a 5-point system:
1 point — totally agree, this statement is not suitable;
5 points — totally agree, this statement is absolutely perfect.
Scales of the questionnaire “Interaction parent – child” (BPP)
In the questionnaire “Interaction parent-child” (CDF) for Teens and their parents. following 10 scales.
1 scale: undemanding-demanding parent. The data of this scale to indicate the level of expectations of the parent, which is manifested in the interaction of the parent with the child. The higher readings on this scale, the more demanding parent, the more he expects a high level of responsibility from the child.
2 scale: soft-strictness of the parent. The results of this scale can be judged on the severity, austerity measures applicable to the child, the stiffness of the regulations established in the relationship between parents and children, about the degree of coercion of children.
3 scale: autonomy-control in relation to the child. Higher on the scale, the more pronounced the controlling behavior toward the child. High control can manifest itself in petty custody, obsessions, of restrictiveness; poor control can lead to full autonomy of the child, permissiveness, which may be due to either indifference to, or a consequence of admiration. It is also possible that low control is associated with the manifestation of trust to the child or the desire of a parent to teach him independence.
4 scale: emotional distance and emotional closeness to the child’s parent. You should pay special attention that this scale reflects the view of the parent of proximity to the child. This interpretation of the scale caused by the mirror form of the questionnaire on which the children appreciate his closeness to his parents, his desire to share the most intimate and important to the parent. Comparing the data of parent and child data, you can judge the accuracy of the representations of parents, overestimate or underestimate the vicinity of the child.
5 scale: rejecting the adoption of the child by the parent. This scale reflects the underlying relationship between parent and child, the adoption or rejection of personal qualities and behavioral manifestations of a child. Acceptance of the child as a person is an important prerequisite for the positive development of the child’s self-esteem. The behavior of parents can be a child as receiving or rejecting.
6 scale: the lack of cooperation-cooperation. The cooperation between parents and children as possible reflects the nature of the interaction. Cooperation is a consequence of the inclusion of the child in interaction, recognition of his rights and dignity. It reflects the equality and partnership in relationships between parents and children. The lack thereof may be the result of damaged relationships, authoritarian, indifferent, or ambivalent parenting style.
7 scale: disagreement-agreement between child and parent. This scale also describes the nature of the interaction between parent and child and reflects the frequency and the degree of agreement between them in different situations. Using two forms of the questionnaire: children’s and adult, you can assess the degree of agreement not only on this scale, but also on all other scales, as the differences between them also allows to judge about the differences in the views of the child and the parent on the educational situation in the family.
8 scale: inconsistency is the consistency of a parent. The parent sequence is an important parameter of the interaction, in this scale reflects how consistent and constant parent in their demands, in their attitude to the child, in the application of punishments and rewards, etc. Inconsistent parents can be the result of emotional unbalance, educational insecurity, denying the relationship to the child, etc.
9 scale: the credibility of the parent. The results of this scale to reflect the self-esteem of parent in its influence on the child, as far as his opinions, actions, actions are authoritative for the child, what is their power of influence. Comparison with data allow the child to judge the degree of differences between estimates of parental authority. When children give a high assessment of the credibility of a parent, most often this means expressed a positive attitude towards parents in General, so the scores on this scale are very important for the diagnosis of positivity-negativity of the relationship of the child to the parent, as indicators on the next 10th scale.
10 scale: satisfaction with the relationship of the child with the parent. According to the tenth scale can be judged on the overall satisfaction level of relations between parents and children — how from one source or another. Low degree of satisfaction may indicate irregularities in the structure of the parent-child relationship, potential conflicts or concerns about the current family situation.
In an embodiment, a questionnaire for parents of preschool children and Junior pupils have changed some of the questions that were inappropriate for children of this age and replaced with two scales of the questionnaire. Instead of scales “disagreement-agreement” and “authoritative parent” (7 and 9 scale) were introduced two new scales:
7 scale: “anxiety for the child”
9 scale: “educational confrontation in the family”
Many authors draw attention to parental anxiety for the child as an important factor for understanding the emergence of neurotic reactions in children. A. I. Zakharov also classifies as pathogenic traits, type of education low cohesion and differences of family members on parenting that can lead to educational confrontation within the family. In addition, replacement of the 7-th and 9-th scales caused by the lack of parallel form for children because at this age children are hard enough to answer questions related to their relationship to their parents, and without comparison with children’s data, the scale of the consent and authority lose their diagnostic value.
Questionnaire (all three forms) has been tested for validity and reliability.
Questionnaire “the Interaction of the parent with the child” (BPP). Teen version
Manual. Note the degree of agreement with the following statements on a 5-point system. Rate approval separately for each parent in the form of answers: under the letter M is for mother, under the letter ” O ” — for father.